Heating systems

Heating systems principles

The most relevant advantages and heating systems purposes are shown below with their A or superior label concerning condensing boilers, heat pumps and district heating.

Condensing boilers

Condensing boilers work by heating water through diesel combustion or natural gas and take advantage of the water vapor condensation contained in the fumes, therefore, they are more efficient than a conventional boiler. Their efficiency is over 97%. They can be used for only heating or for heating and DHW (mixed boilers) and they can be wall mounted (installed on the wall, usually in the kitchen) for an apartment or flat. In the case of a larger house or block of flats, standing boilers will be used instead, as shown in the image.

Heat pumps

A heat pump is a device that takes energy from the air, eg., and sends it to another habitat or uses it to heat a fluid.

The most efficient and commonly used heat pumps are inverter pumps. Their performance is the following: instead of frequently starting and stopping to obtain the desired average temperature, thanks to the inverter system, the compressor changes its speed and power, which helps to keep the comfort temperature constant and programmed for a room. In addition, it saves part of the pump energy consumption.

Heating networks and urban DHW

Most of the networks in Spain supply heat, some of them also DHW and other ones both heat and cold, mainly in the northern Mediterranean area. A heat, cold and DHW network works through a plant in which boilers are installed providing thermal energy and DHW, DHW accumulator devices, distribution network to the substations that supply energy to several blocks and homes with heat or cold and DHW. In order to produce cold, refrigerating towers are needed as well.